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高中英语到底在学什么?

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发表于 2019-10-17 23:10:30 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  一、高中英语到底在学什么?
  首先,我们一起来谈一个很多同学都有困惑的问题,高中英语到底在学什么?我们英语学科的学习不同与数学物理这类学科,有非常清晰的章节,比如函数、导数,所以很多同学对于英语学习的知识结构不够清晰,导致不能有一个清晰的阶段性目标去实现。很多同学觉得英语学科“难”,其实不是难在知识上,而难在无从下手上,单从每次考试题型来看,只有听力理解、语法填空、完形填空、阅读理解、书面表达这么几个板块,但这只是题型,并不是具象化的知识,所以很多学生的困惑都来源于假如我语法填空不好,那我是应该背单词看电影提升语感还是买本语法书看理论?我是某块知识不好还是语法都不好?实际上,英语学习是一个全方位立体工程,会有几大方面;
  (1)词性词汇(区分动、名、形、副词等词性,并进行中英文对照的记忆);
  (2)语法知识(掌握基本语法知识并于语法、完形、阅读、写作等题目相结合,找到其内在联系)
  (3)阅读理解(在掌握词汇和语法的基础上,不仅可以进行精准或粗略的翻译,并且可以结合不同的文体对文章主旨中心思想进行把握)
  (4)书面表达(可以将词汇和语法结合,运用与写作中写出符合题目要求的“高级感”文章)
  二、高二英语重难点知识
  (1)非谓语动词,非谓语动词作为高中重点语法,高二年级重点语法,其难度也是不言而喻的,很多学生会很不理智的放弃这一部分,认为其晦涩难懂,且在考试中无非就考察两个语法填空,其实不然,我们一起通过几个例子来看一下非谓语动词的“潜在价值”。
  非谓语动词在语法填空中的运用
  往年来看,非谓语动词是语法填空题目中重要考察题型,在刚刚过去的2019年高考中,非谓语动词在语法填空10个题目中就占据2题,这类题目主要难在考点判定和区分主被动的问题上;在考点判定部分我们主要遵循一个简单句有且仅有一个谓语动词的原则;而主被动问题上我们要去找该动词的逻辑主语;
  【例1】Nervously (2) ______ (face) challenges, I know I will whisper to myself the two simple words “Be yourself”.(2019 北京卷)
  【答案】 facing
  【解析】 本题考查非谓语动词;提示词face为动词,而本句的谓语动词是know,因此可判定本题需填非谓语动词;而非谓语动词的逻辑主语是I和face之间为主动关系; 又通过翻译“面临着众多挑战,我知道…” 可知,face和know为同时关系;故正确答案是facing。
  【例2】Earth Day, (4) ______ (mark) on 22 April, is an annual event aiming to raise public awareness about environmental protection.(2019 北京卷)
  【答案】 marked
  【解析】 本题考查非谓语动词;提示词mark为动词,而本句谓语动词为is,因此可判定本题需填非谓语动词;mark的逻辑主语为Earth Day,主语和动词mark之间为被动关系,且已完成;故正确答案是marked。
  非谓语动词在完形填空和阅读理解中的运用
  很多同学认为,语法知识只适用于语法习题,而实际上语法存在于每一个题型中,就拿完形填空和阅读理解来说,当我们定位到解题点时,我们要对核心内容进行翻译理解,但是翻译过程不单纯是连接我们所认识单词的中文含义,而是要正确的结合语法来进行精准翻译,我们一起来看一个例句
  【例3】After much time and money spent seeking an 41__ result, it was determined that I had a eye disease that slowly 42__ a person of sight.
  41.A.urgent  B.obvious   C.ordinary   D.accurate
  42.A.robs  B.warns   C.reminds   D.informs
  【解析】我们首先来看划线部分spent seeking,如果根据我们直接连接中文含义的方式翻译应该为“在大量时间和金钱花费寻找一个…结果之后”,这显然是一个逻辑不通的句子,所以我们在这一部分我们要去分析句式结构,was determined是主句谓语,spent是非谓语动词done所以是被动,seeking是主动,spent逻辑主语time and money,seeking逻辑主语是time and money spent,所以该句正确翻译应为在大量时间和金钱被花费去寻求一个精确的结构之后。
  非谓语动词在写作中的运用
  【例4】当我们不想用单一的I、WE等代词作主语时,我们就可以使用动名词,比如,Attending the wonderful activity is so rewarding for my Spoken English.
  …
  针对于这部分的例子我们就不一一例举了,但是由上可知,非谓语动词不仅仅运用于语法填空一道题目中,而是贯穿于各类题型,英译中(完形填空+阅读理解);中译英(书面表达);一个'小小的'非谓语动词在高考英语的卷子中可以起到巨大的作用。
  (2)语法填空综合题目考点判断,随着高中学习进入到高二年级,英语语法知识的考察范围越来越广泛、越来越综合,已经不满足于单纯的考察一下定语从句,时态语态这种单一知识点,更侧重于学生对于语法知识的整体把握,在这部分中的一个重难点就是如何判定考点,比如很多学生看到一个无提示词的连词题就想填写which或者that,然而并不全是准确的,其主要原因是孩子没有办法把自己所学习的从句知识运用到综合题目中去判定考点,题目考察的究竟是定语从句还是名词性从句还是状语从句,针对于这个问题,我们一起来看一道例题,
  【例5】 What students do at college seems to matter much more than (8) ______ they go. The students benefitting most from college are those (9) ______ are totally engaged (参与) in academic life, taking full advantage of the college's chances and resources (资源).
  8.
  【答案】 where
  【解析】 本题考查宾语从句;通过本句可以看出,主句than后缺宾语,而从句通过翻译“学生在大学所做的事要比他们去哪儿重要的多”可知缺地点的语义;故正确答案是where。
  9.
  【答案】 who
  【解析】 本题考查定语从句;通过本句可以看出,主句完整,而从句不完整,缺主语,因此考查定语从句中的关系代词;通过翻译可知,此处代替的是students,指人;故正确答案是who。
  由此可看出,我们在完成此类型题目时,应先根据各从句特点判定考点,比如主句成分不完整是名词性从句,主句完整有先行词为定语从句,然后再根据不同知识点所学内容去选择正确答案。
  三、高三英语重难点知识
  (1)阅读理解说明文之主旨题,很多同学对于高三模拟和高考真题中的一些'长难'CD篇阅读有一种恐慌心理,从而会过度依赖于文中的关键词和选项中的关键词的对应,这种方法在做大多数题目中,尤其是细节题目是非常有效果的,但是在主旨题目中就不灵验了,其主要原因是,每一个选项都是正确的,每一个选项的关键词都是在文章中有迹可循的,这个时候我们应该如何处理?
  【例1】The problem of robocalls has gotten so bad that many people now refuse to pick up calls from numbers they don't know. By next year, half of the calls we receive will be scams (欺诈). We are finally waking up to the severity of the problem by supporting and developing a group of tools, apps and approaches intended to prevent scammers from getting through. Unfortunately, it's too little, too late. By the time these “solutions” (解决方案) become widely available, scammers will have moved onto cleverer means. In the near future, it's not just going to be the number you see on your screen that will be in doubt. Soon you will also question whether the voice you're hearing is actually real.
  That's because there are a number of powerful voice manipulation (处理) and automation technologies that are about to become widely available for anyone to use. At this year's I/O Conference, a company showed a new voice technology able to produce such a convincing human-sounding voice that it was able to speak to a receptionist and book a reservation without detection.
  These developments are likely to make our current problems with robocalls much worse. The reason that robocalls are a headache has less to do with amount than precision. A decade of data breaches (数据侵入) of personal information has led to a situation where scammers can easily learn your mother's name, and far more. Armed with this knowledge, they're able to carry out individually targeted campaigns to cheat people. This means, for example, that a scammer could call you from what looks to be a familiar number and talk to you using a voice that sounds exactly like your bank teller's, tricking you into “confirming” your address, mother's name, and card number. Scammers follow money, so companies will be the worst hit. A lot of business is still done over the phone, and much of it is based on trust and existing relationships. Voice manipulation technologies may weaken that gradually.
  We need to deal with the insecure nature of our telecom networks. Phone carriers and consumers need to work together to find ways of determining and communicating what is real. That might mean either developing a uniform way to mark videos and images, showing when and who they were made by, or abandoning phone calls altogether and moving towards data-based communications - using apps like FaceTime or WhatsApp, which can be tied to your identity.
  Credibility is hard to earn but easy to lose, and the problem is only going to get harder from here on out.
  41. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?
  A. Where the Problem of Robocalls Is Rooted
  B. Who Is to Blame for the Problem of Robocalls
  C. Why Robocalls Are About to Get More Dangerous
  D. How Robocalls Are Affecting the World of Technology
  【答案】 C
  【解析】  本题考查主旨题;文章在第一段提到了自助语音电话带给人们的危害,尾段最终提出信任度是很难获得又很容易失去的东西,并且,由此涉及的相关问题也会越来越难以解决。文章首尾段都是在逐步阐述自助语音电话愈加危险的状况;故正确答案是C。
  方法总结:像这类题目我们的答案定位点首先要准确,以首段为主/尾端为辅的方法,不需要进行全段精确翻译,理解大概含义总结核心观点即可;切忌不要被中间段一些相似言论诱惑。
  (2)应用文要点写作,近两年北京考题在应用文写作的考察趋于开放性,主要体现在要点段落的内容上,例如:推荐北京的一所大学、推荐一条旅游路线、推荐一个历史人物、推荐出行注意事项等等;这类文章在写作中不仅要求我们掌握一些基本写作句式,比如what a delight it is to hear that…;Several relevant arrangements as to the activity are as follows.等等,我们还需要在中间段对其要点展开具体介绍且不能够过于泛泛,像Not only can it broaden my horizon but also I will have a better understanding of traditional culture.这样的句子虽然没什么问题,但是也没有紧扣主题,这也就要求我们平时在日常英语学习中要注意积累老师讲解的写作素材,
  【例2】假设你是红星中学的学生李华。得知美国网友Chris计划今年七月到你校参加关于中国科技历史文化的交流会。请根据以下提示,给他写封邮件。
  (1) 表示欢迎;
  (2) 介绍四大发明中之一:指南针的历史、作用及影响
  (3) 询问对方的其他需求。
  参考词汇:指南针:Compass
  【素材积累】
  历史:
  The compass was first invented (as early as) the Chinese Han Dynasty .Later,it was used to be  a device for navigation by the Song Dynasty Chinese.
  指南针最早发明于汉朝。后来,它被用作一个工具用来导航直到宋朝
  作用:
  Nowadays, the compass is adopted to navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points)
  现在,指南针被用来导航和显示相对地理位置的定位
  影响:
  The four great inventions (The invention of compass) (of China) (made tremendous contribution) to the development of the world's economy and the progress of the culture of mankind.
  四大发明(指南针的发明)对世界经济的发展和人类文化的进步做出了巨大的贡献
  词汇:
  invent:
  create: 创造出来的东西以前并不存在,或者指独具特色的创作。
  compose: 音乐或诗歌、画的创作。
  design: 艺术或技术领域的创作设计,强调构思多于实际制造。
  invent: 科技领域,通过思考、研究或实验制造出新的前所未有、极为有用的东西。
  make: 指任何东西的创作或制造。
  produce: 产品的生产,或作品创作的完成。
  tremendous:
  huge: 体积或容积。也可用于引申意义。
  enormous: 体积、数量或程度超过一般标准。
  immense: 正式用词,空间的广阔,指面积或分量的巨大。
  giant: 非正式用词,多为褒义。指如巨人般的庞大体积。
  gigantic: 面积或体积的巨大,但多用于引申意义。
  colossal: 侧重尺寸、规模和体积的无比巨大。
  vast: 空间、面积、范围的巨大,不涉及重量。
  massive: 大的体积、数量和重量,侧重庞大而笨重。
  tremendous: 某物很大,大得惊人
  adopt/adapt
  adapt for:把…改编成
  adapt to:适应
  【范文赏析】
  Dear Chris,
  I have learned that you will take part in the exhibition about Chinese science and technology culture in our school in July. First of all, I sincerely welcome your arrival.
  Besides, here are some details about this show. The main exhibit is one of the four great inventions-compass. The compass was first invented as early as the Chinese Han Dynasty. Later,it was used to be  a device for navigation by the Song Dynasty Chinese. Nowadays, the compass is adopted to navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).
  The invention of compass made tremendous contribution to the development of the world's economy and the progress of the culture of mankind. Therefore, it is a wonderful way to get a better understanding of four great inventions of ancient China.
  If you have any other problems, please feel free to contact me.
  Yours
  Li Hua
  想了解更多关于学习生活的咨询,请关注“北京新东方学校中小学一对一”网站和公众号“北京新东方中小学全科教育1对1”,更多精彩等您发现!
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